Austrian Jews
Apr 20th, 2009 by Elijah

The Jews of Austria are an ancient Jewish community who are from the territory of the modern state of Austria, which originated from the Roman occupation of Israel. Jews have been in Austria from at least the 3rd century. In 2008 a team of archeologists discovered a third century CE amulet in the form of a gold scroll with the words of the Jewish prayer Shema Yisrael (Hear, O Israel! The Lord is our God, the Lord is one) inscribed on it in the grave of a Jewish infant in Halbturn. It is considered to be the earliest surviving evidence of a Jewish presence in what is now Austria. It is hypothesized that the Jews immigrated to Austria following the Roman legions after the Roman occupation of Israel. It is theorized that the Roman legions who participated in the occupation likely came back after the First Jewish–Roman War with Jewish prisoners.
According to a document from the 10th century which determined rights of equality between the Jewish and Christian merchants in Danube, and there was likely a Jewish population in Vienna at this point. The existence of a Jewish community in the area is known after the start of the 12th century, when two synagogues were created. In the same century, the Jewish settlement in Vienna increased with the absorption of Jewish settlers from Bavaria and from the Rhineland.

At the start of the 13th century, the Jewish community started to flourish. One of the main reasons for the prosperity was the recognition by Frederick II, the Holy Roman Emperor that the Jews were a separate ethnic and religious group, and were not bound to the laws that targeted the Christian population. Following this assumption, on July 1244, the Emperor published a bill of rights for Jews which encouraged them to work in the banking business, encouraged the immigration of additional Jews to the area, and promised protection and autonomous rights, like the right to judge themselves and the right to collect taxes. This bill of rights affected other kingdoms in Europe such as Hungary, Poland, Lithuania, Silesia and Bohemia which had a high concentration of Jews in their population.

During this period, the Jewish population mainly dealt with commerce and the collection of taxes and also gained key positions many other aspects of life in Austria. In 1204, the first documented synagogue in Austria was constructed. In addition, Jews went through a period of religious prosperity and a group of notable rabbis settled in Vienna and were later referred to as “the wise men of Vienna”. The group established a Beth midrash and it was considered to be the largest Talmudic school in Europe during that period.

The prosperity of the Jewish community caused increased jealousy from the Christian population and hostility from the church. In 1282, when the area became controlled by the Catholic House of Habsburg, Austria stopped being a religious center for the Jews. Jews were largely hated because they acted as tax collectors and bankers and loans for the country. The earliest evidence of Jews collecting taxes appears in a document from 1320. During the same time, riots occurred against the Jews in the area. The Jewish population continued to deteriorate in middle of the 14th century and at the start of the 15th century during the regime of Albert the Third and Leopold III. This period was characterized in the cancellations of many debts that would have been collected by Jews, the confiscation of Jewish assets, and the creation of economic limitations against them.

In middle of the 15th century, following the establishment of the Anti-Catholic movement of Jan Hus in the Czech Republic, the condition of the Jewish population worsened. In 1420, the Jewish community suffered persecution from false allegations when a Jewish person from Upper Austria was charged with the desecration of the sacramental bread, a ritual performed by Catholic clergy who mysteriously change bread into flesh of their god which Catholics eat. This led Albert the Fifth to order the imprisonment of all of the Jews in Austria. Two hundred and ten (210) Jews were burnt alive in public and the rest were deported from Austria, leaving their belongings behind which the Catholics confiscated. Austria became the first European state to deport the Jewish population from it. In 1469, the deportation order was canceled by Frederick the Third who was known for his good relationship with the Jews and was even referred to at times as the “King of the Jews”. He allowed Jews to return and settle in all the cities of Styria and Carinthia. Under his regime, the Jews gained a short period of peace (between 1440-1493).

The relative period of peace didn’t last long, and with the start of the regime of Ferdinand the First in 1556, despite that he opposed the persecution of the Jews, he demanded them to pay excessive of taxes and ordered them to wear a mark of disgrace. Between 1564 – 1619, in the period of the regimes of Maximilian the first, Rudolf the Second and Matthias, the fanatical Society of Jesus prevailed, and due to their delusional rituals, the condition of the Jews worsened even more. Later during the regime of Ferdinand the Second in Austria, and in spite of that he opposed the persecution of the Jews like his grandfather; and even permitted constructing a synagogue, he demanded excessive amounts of tax from the Jewish population.

The Jewish community in Austria again suffered during the period of the regime of Leopold the First, a period in which Jews were persecuted frequently and were deported from different areas, including a deportation from Vienna in 1670. The Jews had to bare different laws, one of which only permitted the first-borns to marry, in order to stop the increase of the Jewish population. Although Leopold the First treated the Jewish population severely, he comissioned Samson Wertheimer, a Jewish economic advisor, to wrok for him.

A Sabbateans movement which was established during the same period of time, also reached the Jewish community in Austria, especially due to the rough condition of the Jews there, and many of them immigrated to the land of Israel in the footsteps of Sabbatai Zevi.

After the period of the religious fanaticism towards the Jewish population of the region, a period of relative tolerance towards the Jewish population came about. It was less noticeable during the regime of Maria Theresa of Austria, and increased during period of the regime of Franz Joseph I of Austria, which was a relief to the Jewish population. Upon the partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1772 the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, or simply “Galicia”, became the largest, most populous, and northernmost province of the Austrian Empire. As a result many Jews were added to the Austrian Empire and the empress, Maria Theresa, quickly legislated different laws aimed at regulating their rights and canceled the Jewish autonomy in order to put the authority of the Jews in her hands instead. Despite the fact that the empress was known for her hatred Jews, several Jews were obliged to work for her at her court. The empress made it mandatory that the Jewish population would start going to the general elementary schools, and in addition permission of Jews joining the universities. Jewish schools did not exist yet during that time.

After Maria Theresa’s death in 1780 her son Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor succeeded her and started working on the integration of the Jewish population in the Austrian society. The emperor determined that they would be obligated to enlist in the army, and further established governmental schools for the Jewish population. In 1782 he bestowed the Jewish population with the 1782 Edict of Tolerance, which canceled different limitations which had been bestowed upon the Jewish population previously, such as the limitations which permitted them to live only in predetermined locations and the limitation to work only in certain professions. Jews were allowed to establish factories, hire Christian servants and join the higher education institutions, but all this only on the condition that the Jews would be obligated to go to the schools; that they would use German only in the official documents instead of Hebrew and Yiddish; that dorsal tax would be forbidden; that the trials held within the community would be condensed; and that those whom would not get an education would not be able to marry before the age of 25. The emperor also declared that the Jewish population would establish Jewish schools for their children, which they opposed because he forbade them to organize within the community and establish public institutions. In the aftermath of different resistances from the Jewish party which opposed the many conditions held upon them and also from the Christian party which opposed many of the rights given to the Jewish population, the decree was not fully implemented.

After the death of Joseph II in 1790, he was succeeded by his brother, Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor. After only two years of regime, he was succeeded by his son Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, who continued working on the integration of the Jewish population into the Austrian society, but he was more moderate than his uncle. In 1812 a Jewish Sunday school was opened in Vienna. During the same period of time a number of limitations were bestowed upon the Jewish population, such as the obligation to study in Christian schools and to pray in German.

Between 1848 – 1938, the Jewish Austrian population enjoyed a period of great cultural prosperity. The prosperity began with the start of the regime of Franz Joseph I of Austria as the Emperor of the Austria–Hungary Empire, and dissolved gradually after the death of the emperor up to the annexation of Austria to Germany by the Nazis, a process which lead to the start of the holocaust of Austrian Jewish population.

In 1848 Franz Joseph I of Austria was appointed as the emperor of Austria, an event which marked the start of the period of great prosperity for the Jewish population of Austria. The emperor bestowed the Jewish population equality of rights, stating that “the civil rights and the country’s policy is not contingent in the people’s religion”. The emperor was well liked by the Jewish population, which as token of appreciation made prayers and songs about him which were printed in the Jewish prayer books. In 1849 the emperor canceled the prohibition held upon the Jewish population to organize within the community, and in 1852 the regulations of the Jewish community was set. In 1867 the Jewish population formally received equality of full rights.

In 1869 the emperor visited Jerusalem and was greeted in by the Jewish population there. The emperor established a fund aimed at financing the establishment of Jewish institutions and in addition established the Talmudic school for rabbis in Budapest. During the 1890s several Jews were even elected to the Austrian parliament. During the regime period of Franz Joseph and after it the Austrian Jewish population contributed greatly to the Austrian culture. Despite their small percentage in the population, many Austrian Jewish scholars became some of the greatest contributors to the Austrian culture, among them were many Jewish lawyers, journalists, authors, playwrights, poets, doctors, bankers, businessmen, artists and among them Theodor Herzl. Vienna became a cultural Jewish center of Austria, a center of education, culture and Zionism. Theodor Herzl, the father of Zionism, studied in the University of Vienna, and was the editor of the Feuilleton of the Neue Freie Presse, a very influential newspaper at that time. Felix Salten, who was also Jewish, succeeded Herzl as the editor of the Feuilleton.

The intertwining of the Jewish population and the attitude of the emperor towards them could also be seen in the general state of the empire. From the middle of the 19th century started a lot of pressures from the different nationals living in multinational House of the Habsburg empire: the national minorities (such as the Hungarians, Czech and Croatians) began demanding more and more collective rights; amongst the German speakers a great grudge overcame them against the minorities and against the empire and its institutions, and many started feeling more connected to Germany which was strengthening and was more dynamic. Under these circumstances, the Jewish population was especially notable for their absolute loyalty to the empire and their personal admiration of the emperor. In circa 1918 about 300,000 Jews in Austria, were scattered in 33 different settlements. Most of them, about 200,000 lived in the capital city of Vienna.

The cultural prosperity period ended abruptly with the annexation of Austria to Nazi Germany in 1938 (the “Anschluss”). At the time of the annexation, the Jewish population in Austria consisted of 181,882 people, of them 167,249 in Vienna, fortunately thousands of Jews emigrated the years before, including people with one Jewish parent or at least one Jewish grandmother or grandfather. The Nazis entered Austria without any resistance, and even were accepted approvingly by the Austrians. Immediately with their entrance to Austria the Nazis started committing the anti-Jewish policy all over the country. The Jewish population was expelled from all their cultural, economic and social life in Austria and was humiliated as they were commanded to perform different humiliating tasks, without any consideration of differential of age, social position or sex. The number of Jews and those with Jewish ancestries accounted for 201,000 to 214,000 people.

During the same year of the annexation, “the Night of Broken Glass” (known as Kristallnacht) was carried out in Austria, in response to the Jewish refugee, Herschel Grynszpan, assassinating the German diplomat Ernst vom Rath in France. As a result, Jewish Synagogues and buildings all over Austria were shattered and robbed throughout the country by the Hitler Youth and by the SA, as well as many homes of the Jewish population. During that night 27 Jews were killed.

After the “Anschluss“ many Jews were trying to emigrate out of Austria. The immigration center was Vienna, the capital of Austria, and the people leaving were required to have visas and documents approving their departure in order to get out of the country. They had to leave everything of any worth in Austria. To leave the country high “taxes” had to be paid. The emigrants hurried to collect only their most important belongings and the departure fees, and they had to leave behind them everything else. The people whom didn’t rush out of the country ended up being killed in the holocaust, except for a few survivors.

During the period of the holocaust of the Austrian Jews, the general Chinese consul, Feng-Shan Ho was stationed in Vienna. While risking his own life and his career, Feng-Shan managed to rescue thousands of Jews which were seeking to escape the Nazis, by rapidly approving thousands of visas for the Jewish emigrants which were in rush of fleeing out of the country. Among them were possibly the Austrian filmmakers Jacob and Luise Fleck, who got one of the last visas for China in 1940 und who then produced films with chinese filmmakers in Shanghai. Ho’s actions were recognized posthumously when he was awarded the title Righteous among the Nations by the Israeli organization Yad Vashem in 2001.

In 1939 the Nazis initiated the annihilation process of the Jewish population. The most notable persons of the community, about 6000, were sent to the Dachau concentration camp and to the Buchenwald concentration camp. The main concentration camp in Austria was the Mauthausen Concentration Camp, which located next to the city Linz. Many other Jews were sent to the concentration camps in Theresienstadt and Łódź and from there to the Auschwitz concentration camp. In the summer of 1939 hundreds of factories and Jewish stores were shut down by the Austrian government. In October 1941 Jews were forbidden to exit the boundaries of Austria. The total number of Jews whom managed to exit Austria is about 28,000. Part of the Vienna Jews was sent to the transit camp Nisko in Poland. In the end of winter 1941 additional 4,500 Jews were sent from Vienna to different concentration and extermination camps in Poland (mainly to Izbica Kujawska and to other ghettos in the Lublin area). In June 1941 a direct delivery exited the city to the Sobibor extermination camp which had around one Thousand Jews. In the fall of 1942 the Nazis sentenced more Jews to the death from ghettos of the towns and of the cities which they occupied in the Soviet Union: Riga, Kaunas, Vilnius and Minsk. Those Jews were murdered by Nazi soldiers mainly by gunshots and mass graves.

In conclusion, although Austria became a center of Jewish learning during the 13th century, the increased anti-semitism led to the expulsion of the Jews in 1669. Following formal readmission in 1848, a sizable Jewish community developed once again, contributing strongly to Austrian culture. By the 1930s, some 300,000 Jews lived in Austria, most of them in Vienna. Following the Anschluss with Nazi Germany, most of the community emigrated or were killed in the Holocaust. The current Austrian Jewish population is around 10,000.

The following is a list of some prominent Austrian Jews. The German speaking Jews from the Habsburg Empire are also listed. During the course of many centuries, the community had many challenges, and times when the Jewish community enjoyed equality and rights and their culture prospered. The Jewish community dealt with Pogroms, Deportations and Blood libels. After the Holocaust, the size of the Jewish community in Austria decreased significantly until about 1990. Nowadays, it comprises officially 8,140 people (census 2001).

NOTABLE JEWS OF AUSTRIA

Politicians
Max Adler (1873–1937), Austrian social-marxist philosopher
Viktor Adler, Austrian Socialist leader
Otto Bauer, Austrian Socialist leader Republikanischer Schutzbund
Julius Deutsch, Founder and chairman of the paramilitary organization “Republikanischer Schutzbund”
Rudolf Hilferding, German Finance Minister
Walter Hollitscher, Austrian Marxist philosopher (1911-1988)
Teddy Kollek, Mayor of Jerusalem (1965-1993)
Bruno Kreisky, Austrian Chancellor (1970-1983)
Ignaz Kuranda, politician
Dorrit Moussaieff, First Lady of Iceland
Other
Friedrich Adler (1879-1960), son of Viktor Adler assassin of Count Karl von Stürgkh
Nathan Birnbaum, early Zionist
David Josef Bach, important and influential figure in the cultural life
Adolf Fischhof, leader in Viennese revolution of 1848
Felix Frankfurter, US judge & civil rights activist
Alfred Fried, pacifist, Nobel Peace Prize (1911)
Theodor Herzl, Zionist leader
Emil Jellinek, automobile entrepreneur
Joachim Edler von Popper, court Jew
Samuel Oppenheimer, court Jew
Felix G. Rohatyn, New York financer
Felix Weltsch, 1884-1964, Zionist, journalist, philosopher
Samson Wertheimer, court Jew
Simon Wiesenthal, 1908–2005, pre-eminent Nazi hunter

Scientists
Robert Adler, physicist
Hermann Bondi, cosmologist
Eugene Braunwald, cardiologist
Erwin Chargaff, chemist
Carl Djerassi, chemist: first oral contraceptive pill
Paul Ehrenfest, physicist
Albert Einhorn, biochemist: Novocaine
Walter Feit, mathematician
Sir Otto Frankel, geneticist
Otto Frisch, physicist
Thomas Gold, cosmologist
Hans Hahn, mathematician
Kurt J. Isselbacher, physician, oncologist
Eric Kandel, neuroscientist, Nobel Prize (2000)
Martin Karplus, chemist
Walter Kohn, physicist, Nobel Prize (1998)
Carl Koller, ophthalmologist; first to use cocaine as an anaesthetic
Rudolf Kompfner, invented traveling wave tube
Hans Kronberger (physicist), nuclear physicist
Karl Landsteiner, biologist: blood groups, Nobel Prize (1930)
Adolf Lieben, chemist
Robert von Lieben, physicist
Herman F. Mark, chemist: polymers
Lise Meitner, physicist: nuclear fission
Gustav Nossal, immunologist
Friedrich Paneth, chemist
Wolfgang Pauli, physicist, Nobel Prize (1945)
Max Perutz, molecular biologist, Nobel Prize (1962)
Isidor Isaac Rabi, physicist, Nobel Prize (1944)
Victor Frederick Weisskopf (1908 – 2002) physicist. During World War II, he worked at Los Alamos on the Manhattan Project to develop the atomic bomb, and later campaigned against the proliferation of nuclear weapons

Psychologists and psychiatrists
Alexandra Adler, post-traumatic stress
Alfred Adler, founder of individual psychology
Leo Alexander, medical expert at the Nuremberg Trials
Ernst Angel, psychology and writer
Bruno Bettelheim, child psychology
Josef Breuer, forerunner of psychoanalysis
Anna Freud, child psychoanalysis
Sigmund Freud, founder of psychoanalysis
Viktor Frankl, founder of logotherapy
Marie Jahoda, psychologist
Leo Kanner, child psychiatry
Melanie Klein, psychotherapy
Heinz Kohut, psychoanalysis
Sophie Lazarsfeld individual psychologist, student of Alfred Adler, mother of Paul Felix Lazarsfeld
Walter Mischel, experimental psychology
Jacob L. Moreno, developer of psychodrama
Otto Rank, psychoanalysis
Wilhelm Reich, psychiatry and psychoanalysis
Theodor Reik, psychoanalysis
Max Wertheimer, one of the founders of Gestalt psychology, born in Prague.

Social and political scientists
Samuel Bergman, philosopher
Gustav Bergmann, philosopher
Peter Blau, sociologist
Paul Edwards, philosopher
Eugen Ehrlich, sociology of law
Herbert Feigl, philosopher
Philipp Frank, philosopher
Paul Frankl, art historian
Heinrich Friedjung, Moravian historian and politician.
Heinrich Gomperz, philosopher
Theodor Gomperz, philosopher
Theodor Hertzka, writer of Freiland
Raul Hilberg (1926-2007), Holocaust historian
Ivan Illich, polymath
Norbert Jokl, founder of Albanology
Hans Kelsen, legal philosopher
Georg Kreisel, philosopher and mathematician
Nachman Krochmal, Jewish philosopher
Otto Kurz, historian
Paul Felix Lazarsfeld, sociologist
Emil Lederer, economist
Gerda Lerner, American feminist historian
Robert Lowie, anthropologist
Ludwig von Mises, economist
Otto Neurath, sociologist
Julius Pokorny, scholar of Irish Gaelic
Karl Popper, philosopher of science
Egon Ranshofen-Wertheimer, diplomat, journalist, political scientist
Alfred Schutz, sociologist
Otto Weininger, philosopher
Felix Weltsch, Jewish writer, philosopher, journalist, Zionist
Eric Wolf, anthropologist

Film and stage
Leon Askin, actor
John Banner, actor
Theodore Bikel, actor
Leo Birinski, playwright, screenwriter and director
Elisabeth Bergner, stage actress
Rudolph Bing (1902 – 1997) opera impresario, General Manager of the Metropolitan Opera in New York from 1950 to 1972
Gerhard Bronner, cabaret artist
George Burns, actor (Austrian parents)
Heinrich Conried, theatre owner & manager
Ricardo Cortez, actor
Max Fleischer, animator
William Fox, film producer
Fritz Grünbaum & Karl Farkas, caberet artists
Fritz Kortner, director
Georg Kreisler, cabaret artist
Hedy Lamarr, actress & inventor
Hermann Leopoldi, cabaret artist
Herbert Lom (1917 – ) international film actor
Fritzi Massary, singer
Paul Muni, actor
Luise Rainer, actress
Max Reinhardt, director
Joseph Schildkraut, actor
Sam Spiegel, producer
Josef von Sternberg, director
Erich von Stroheim, director & actor
Edgar G. Ulmer, director
Helene Weigel, stage actress
Billy Wilder, director
Fred Zinnemann, director
Max Reinhardt,
Fritz Lang,
Richard Oswald,
Fred Zinnemann
Otto Preminger
Peter Lorre,
Paul Muni
Jacob Fleck
Oscar Pilzer,
Arnold Pressburger
Artur Berger,
Harry Horner
Oskar Strnad
Ernst Deutsch-Dryden,
Heinrich Eisenbach
Fritz Grünbaum
Karl Farkas
Georg Kreisler
Hermann Leopoldi,
Armin Berg
Fritz Kreisler,
Hans Julius Salten,
Erich Wolfgang Korngold,
Max Steiner
Musicians
Kurt Adler, conductor
Norbert Brainin, violinist
Ignaz Brüll, composer and pianist
Emanuel Feuermann, cellist
Felix Galimir, violinist
Heinrich Grünfeld, cellist
Alfred Grünfeld, pianist
Joseph Joachim, violinist (born in Kittsee, Austria, at that time Hungary)
Hans Keller, musicologist
Julius Korngold, music critic
Fritz Kreisler (1875 – 1962) violinist and composer, one of the most famous of his day
Josef Krips, conductor
Erich Leinsdorf, conductor
Erica Morini, violinist
David Popper, cellist
Julius Rudel, conductor
Erwin Schulhoff (1894 – 1942) composer and pianist
Julius Schulhoff (1825 – 1898) pianist and composer
Rudolf Schwarz, conductor
Rudolf Serkin, pianist
Fritz Spiegl, broadcaster
Fritz Stiedry, conductor
Salomon Sulzer, cantor
Walter Susskind (1913 – 1980) conductor
Richard Tauber, singer and composer
Georg Tintner, conductor
Egon Wellesz, composer
Paul Wittgenstein, pianist
Eric Zeisl (1905-1959) composer
Fannie Bloomfield Zeisler, pianist
Grete Forst, opera singer
Composers
Guido Adler, musicologist (born in Bohemia)
Max Brand, pioneer of electronic music
Edmund Eysler, composer
Leo Fall, composer
Wilhelm Grosz, composer
Walter Jurmann, popular composer
Erich Wolfgang Korngold, composer (born in Bohemia)
Fritz Kreisler (1875 – 1962) violinist and composer, one of the most famous of his day
Frederick Loewe, Broadway composer
Gustav Mahler, composer (born in Bohemia)
Ignaz Moscheles, composer and pianist
Arnold Schoenberg, composer
Robert Starer, composer
Max Steiner, film composer
Oscar Straus, composer
Ernst Toch, composer
Viktor Ullmann, composer and pianist
Erich Zeisl, composer
Alexander von Zemlinsky, composer
Artists & Architects
Arik Brauer, painter
Hattie Carnegie, jewelry designer
Josef Frank, architect & designer
Ernst Fuchs, painter
Rudi Gernreich, fashion designer
Ernst Gombrich, art historian
Chaim Gross, sculptor
Victor Gruen, architect of the modern American shopping mall
André Heller, multimedia artist
Friedensreich Hundertwasser, artist & architect
Lisette Model, photographer
Richard Neutra, architect
Harry Seidler, Architect
Weegee, photographer
Berta Zuckerkandl, art critic & salon host, see Salon of Berta Zuckerkandl

Writers
Walter Abish, writer
Ilse Aichinger, writer
Peter Altenberg, writer
Ernst Angel, writer and psychology
Raphael Basch (1813-?), journalist & politician
Abraham Benisch (1814-1878) Hebraist and journalist; born Bohemia
Vicki Baum, writer
Leo Birinski, playwright, screenwriter
Henri Blowitz, journalist
Boris Brainin (Sepp Österreicher), poet and translator
Fritz Brainin, poet
Harald Brainin, writer and poet
Hermann Broch, writer
Max Brod, writer
Oscar Bronner, founder/publisher of Vienna’s Der Standard
Otto Maria Carpeaux, literary critic
Eric Frey, managing editor of Vienna’s Der Standard; contributor to New York’s Forward
Erich Fried, poet
Egon Friedell, historian & writer
Balduin Groller, journalist & writer
Elfriede Jelinek, author, Nobel Prize (2004)
Franz Kafka, writer, (Bohemian born)
Leopold Kompert, writer
Paul Kornfeld (1889 – 1942) writer, author of many expressionist plays
Karl Kraus, author
Heinrich Landesmann, poet
Ruth Maier, diarist
Robert Menasse, writer
Frederic Morton, writer
Alfred Polgar, poet & essayist
Leo Perutz, writer
Doron Rabinovici, writer
Joseph Roth, writer
Felix Salten, Hungarian-born Austrian writer
Otto Soyka, writer
Franz Werfel, playwright
Hugo Sonnenschein, Bohemian-born writer
Arthur Schnitzler, writer
Manès Sperber, writer, philosopher
Friedrich Torberg, writer
Schlomo Winninger, biographer (born in Austrian Bukovina, lived in Vienna)
Stefan Zweig, writer

Sport figures
SC Hakoah Wien, Jewish football (soccer) club (Austrian champions in 1925)
SC Maccabi Wien, Jewish football (soccer) club.
Richard Bergmann, world table tennis champion (4 singles titles)
Judith Deutsch, champion freestyle swimmer
Otto Herschmann, Olympic medalist in swimming & fencing
Hugo Meisl, Austrian soccer manager
Paul Neumann, swimmer & first Austrian Olympic champion
Ellen Preis, Olympic fencing champion
Rudolf Spielmann, chess grandmaster
Elisabeth Schwarz, pairs figure skater who won the Olympic gold medal in 1956
Wolfgang Schwarz, gold medal figure skater from the 1968 Winter Olympics

Miscellaneous
Arthur Murray, Jewish dancer
Martin Buber, Jewish philosopher
Alfred Edersheim, Bible scholar
Eduard Fischer
Eduard Glaser, Arabist explorer
Ignaz Glaser, Entrepreneur
Maurice de Hirsch, banker
Robert Kronfeld, gliding pioneer
Wilhelm Jerusalem, rabbi
Hermann Wassertrilling, rabbi
Isaak Löw Hofmann, Edler von Hofmannsthal, merchant
Rixi Markus, contract bridge player (born in Austrian Bukovina, lived in Vienna)
Marcel Prawy, opera guru
Jakob Rosenfeld, Chinese doctor & general
Chaim Sheba, Israeli physician (born in Austrian Bukovina, lived in Vienna)
Martin Schlaff, millionaire businessman
Hedi Stadlen musicologist, philosopher and British/Sri Lankan Communist.
Julius Steinfeld Head of the Agudath Israel in Vienna before and during the Holocaust. (Born in Mattersdorf, Austria)
Desider David Stern, Bibliographer and Coffee machine inventor (born in Breslau (Poland), lived in Vienna)
Moritz Steinschneider, Bibliographer and Orientalist
George Weidenfeld, publisher

Others
Elsa Bernstein, an Austrian-German writer, dramatist
the House of Porges
Heinrich Porges, a Czech-Austrian German choirmaster and music-critic
the House of Henikstein
the House of Todesco
the House of Gomperz
the House of Eskeles
the House of Wartenegg von Wertheimstein
Jean Améry, an ethnic Jew, noted for having written one of the central texts on the Nazi death camps
Viktor Aptowitzer (July 16, 1871, Tarnopol, Galizien, – December 5, 1942, Jerusalem), Jewish theologian, Talmudist;”two Austrian Jewish scholars – Samuel Krauss and Viktor Aptowitzer”
Rudolf Auspitz (July 7, 1837, Vienna – March 8, 1906, Vienna), Austrian politician, entrepreneur (Unternehmer)
Friedrich Austerlitz (April 25, 1862, Hochlieben, Bohemia – July 5, 1931, Vienna), Austrian journalist, politician
Joseph Samuel Bloch (November 20, 1850, Dukla, Galizien – October 1, 1923, Vienna), Austrian publicist, politician
Ludo Moritz Hartmann, Austrian Jewish historian and statesman ” two lay Jews Ludo Moritz Hartmann”
Paul Hatvani, exactly Paul Hirsch (August 16, 1892, Vienna – November 9, 1975, Kew, near Melbourne), Austrian Jewish writer, chemist “Paul Hatvani, a German Jewish refugee”

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